The Land camera, developed by Edwin Land in 1947, was the first instant camera produced. Land was the founder of Polaroid and the company developed and marketed an instant camera that used self developing film. The camera was revolutionary at the time as it allowed you to view your photograph almost instantly. Not only did it let you view the image it also printed off a hard, physical copy for you.
You can just imagine what people got up to with these cameras once the need for developing your film at the local camera shop was eliminated. Needless to say, people's inhibitions relaxed considerably as the photos could be kept and developed in the privacy of your own home.
The camera used instant film, which contains the chemicals needed for developing it. The camera would initiate the process. The initial film used for Polaroid instant cameras was ironically manufactured by Kodak, but Kodak was banned from selling instant cameras and film in 1986 because of patent infringements.
Polaroid also introduced an instant motion picture film called Polavision in 1978, which needed a specific camera and tabletop viewer. Instant cameras can be bought for as low as about $25.